You may not have any illness, but a persistently higher level of blood sugar than average may pose a health concern to you in the near future.
About 25% of the population with a pre-diabetic condition will progress to overt type 2 diabetes (T2DM) within 3–5 years.#
What is Pre-diabetes?*
Pre-diabetes means your blood sugar levels are higher than average, i.e. not high enough to be considered as type 2 diabetes.
How do I know?*
There are 3 confirmatory tests:
1. A fasting blood glucose level between 100-125 mg/dl.
2. Glycated haemoglobin test (HbA1c): Results between 5.7% to 6.4% is confirmatory. HbA1c measures the average blood sugar (glucose) over the last 3 months.
3. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT): Blood sugar level within 140 to 199 mg/dL, after 2hrs of intake of a sugary drink, is considered pre-diabetes.
Are there any symptoms?
In some cases, dark skin patches may appear on certain parts of the body - neck, armpits, elbows & knees.
Otherwise, you may experience a milder form of the following Diabetic symptoms:
1. Excessive thirst (Polydipsia)
2. Frequent urination (Polyuria)
3. Excess hunger
Pre-diabetes Flies Under the Radar^^
Risk factors include:
1. Obesity or overweight, or a body mass index (BMI) over 30. Having a waist larger than 40 inches if you're a man & 35 inches if you're a woman.
2. Being 45 years or older.
3. Parents & siblings suffering from diabetes.
4. Sedentary lifestyle.
5. Females suffering from PCOS or have suffered from Gestational Diabetes.
6. High blood pressure/medicines for high blood pressure.
7. Low HDL cholesterol and/or high triglycerides.
8. Excess of alcohol consumption.
Pre-diabetes Prevent diabetes?^^
Pre-diabetes is reversible, only if you are willing to adopt a few lifestyle adjustments.
1. Engage in 30 to 45 minutes of moderate physical activity at least 5 days a week.
2. Eat a healthy diet & lose excess weight. Losing even 5% to 10% of your weight can make a huge difference.
3. Stop smoking: Nicotine decreases the sensitivity of your cells to insulin, which raises the glucose in your blood.
4. Control your blood pressure & cholesterol levels (blood pressure to be below 140/80 mm hg & total cholesterol level should be less than 200 mg/dL).
5. Chronic emotional stress can directly increase insulin resistance & inhibit beta-cell function. They contribute to the development of diabetes. Hence, please manage your stress levels.
6. Limit alcohol intake.
Stay tuned for more!
#BMC/Global epidemiology of pre-diabetes - present & future perspectives/Published 9 May 2019