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All We need to know about Monkey Pox

What is Monkey Pox?(1)(3)(4)

1. It's a rare disease caused by infection with the MonkeyPox virus (MPXV), a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae family.

2. Current outbreaks are from the West African type out of its two types.

The incubation period :(11) the interval from infection to onset of symptoms is usually from 6 to 13 days.

How does it spread?(1)(3)(4)

• Human-to-human, through:

a. Large Respiratory droplets through prolonged or intimate physical contact or face-to-face exposure.

b. Contaminated clothing or linens, rashes, scabs, body fluids of an infected person coming in contact with body fluids.

c. Pregnant mother to her baby.

• Animal-to-human, through:

a. From infected animals by being scratched or bitten or rodents (rats, squirrels) and primates (monkeys, apes).

What is the current scenario in India?(2)

Currently, there are four confirmed cases of Monkey Pox in India.

Possible symptoms:(1)(3)(4)

1. Fever

2. Headache

3. Muscle aches & backache

4. Swollen lymph nodes

5. Chills

6. Exhaustion

7. Rashes

The natural course of Disease(1)(3)(4)(5)

1. Along with fever, rashes appear on the face, inside the mouth, and other parts of the body & last for 2 - 4 weeks.

2. Patients might get a rash first, followed by other symptoms. While few experience only rashes.

3. A notable inclination for palm and soles is characteristic of Monkey pox.

What is the Treatment available?(9)(10)

1. There are no specific remedies for Monkey Pox infections.

2. The Ministry of Health & F.W. - G.O.I. recommended supportive management for 

a. The protection of affected skin and mucous membranes

b. Rehydration therapy and nutritional support

c. Relief of symptoms like fever, itching, nausea etc

What are the available vaccines?(9)

Two vaccines licensed by the F.D.A is available for preventing monkeypox infection – JYNNEOS (also known as 'Imvamune' or Imvanex) and ACAM2000.

But, no data on the effectiveness of these vaccines in the current outbreak is available and is not yet available in the Indian market.

What Preventive measures can I take?(8)

1. Avoid close, skin-to-skin contact with an infected person.

2. Do not touch any suspected rashes or scabs of an infected person.

3. Do not share eating utensils or clothes with a person with an infected person.

4. N-95 Mask usage, frequent hand-wash & alcohol-based hand sanitiser.

5. Cook all animal meat properly. 

What should I do if I get infected?(6)(7)

1. Contact your physician immediately & follow their advice.

2. Isolate yourself.

References:

1. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/monkeypox (1)

2. https://bit.ly/3vo1auN (2)

3.   https://bit.ly/3oBFzLF (3)

4.   https://bit.ly/3Je71s6 (4)

5. https://bit.ly/3boKSuT (5)

6. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/monkeypox (6)  https://www.cdc.gov/poxvirus/monkeypox/prevention.html (7)

7. https://bit.ly/3OIzDLo (8)

8. https://bit.ly/3oEKmfq (9)

9. https://bit.ly/3boKSuT (10)

10. https://bit.ly/3boKSuT (11)

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