After the ingestion of contaminated water or food, the salmonella bacteria conquered the small intestine and enter the bloodstream temporarily. The bacteria are carried by white blood cells in the bone marrow, spleen, and liver, where they reenter and multiply the bloodstream. People show symptoms, including fever, at this time. Bacteria invade the biliary system, gallbladder, and the lymphatic tissue of the bowel. Here, these bacteria multiply in high numbers. The bacteria pass into the intestinal tract and can be determined in stool samples. If a test result is not clear, urine or blood samples will be taken to make a diagnosis.
Typhoid fever is treated with antibiotics that kill bacteria named Salmonella. Prior to the usage of antibiotics, the fatality rate was 20%. The death occurred from pneumonia, infection, intestinal perforation, or intestinal bleeding. With supportive care and antibiotics, mortality has been reduced to 1%-2%. With effective antibiotic therapy, there is general improvement within 1-2 days and recovery within 7-10 days.
Many antibiotics are very effective for the treatment of typhoid. Chloramphenicol was the original drug that people used to use for many years. Because of its serious side effects, chloramphenicol has been exchanged by other effective antibiotics. The selection of antibiotics is guided by determining the geographic region where the infection was decreased. If relapses occur, then patients are again treated with antibiotics.