Peru is a country on the western seaboard of South America. In the past, Peru was home to one of the oldest yet sophisticated civilizations in the world, the Inca empire. Until 1821, the country was ruled by Spaniards, who were soundly defeated by the nationalists in the Battle of Ayacucho. Consequently, Peru attained independence from Spanish rule in 1824.
Today, Peru is a cosmopolitan country, with a population of more than 31 million which includes natives, Europeans, Asians and even Africans. The most common language spoken in Peru is Spanish, though a considerable number of Peruvians also speak native languages such as Aymara and Quechua.